I was at Fieldays last week, as an exhibitor in the Innovation Centre. It was an exciting three days plus one.
Here are some thing that struck me as I observed the weather, the people, the products and of course, the innovations.
First was that despite being the 50th anniversary year, the weather still made its presence felt. ’Twas not the parka-penetrating chill of the sou-westerlies. Nor the eeriness of foggy mornings. No, it was the wheel-spinning wetness that led to hour-long waits to get out of the parking lot that I remember most about the weather. Is 50 years not long enough to solve that energy-consuming problem?
Then there were the people. Those who looked away when eye-contact was imminent, those who freely gave a big smile without expectations of anything in return, those who listened to learn about dairy’s role in climate change, and those who either did not care or simply did not want to know. Guess which group was in the majority?
That so much of the activity was focused on products that we want but do not need, was the big disappointment for me. We will never achieve societal and environmental sustainability for as long as we try to consume our way to ego-satisfaction.
Finally, innovation in the agricultural sector is a major aspect of Fieldays and there were some really great ideas on display. However, unlike the judges view that the winners of the awards choose their problems to solve with care, it seemed to me that they choose their products not to solve the problems that the world need solving, but instead, chose them to make a profit.
Will I return for Fieldays 2019? Of course I will. Despite my cynicism, it was still a buzz. But I could do without the Saturday when the general public turn out.
When buried in the soil, biochar is an easy means to sequester carbon and so mitigate some of our green house gas emissions.
That our climate is rapidly changing ought to be clear to everyone now. Scientific analysis provides clear and sufficient evidence that the increasing frequency of extreme weather events, is caused largely by our burning of fossil fuels and removal of carbon sinks including forests.
The issue is not why is it is occurring or how we got to this stage of chaos.
No, the issue is: what can we do about it?
‘We’ means you and I, not just our national or local governments.
The need to take action is now urgent.
An analysis of data from the Global Carbon Project, has concluded that the world has only five years left before the IPCC(1) carbon budget(2) for 1.5°C of global warming above pre-industrial levels, is blown.
To express that another way: if the current rate of carbon emissions continues, there is a 2 in 3 chance that sometime in 2021, the mean global average temperature will reach 1.5°C of warming above the internationally agreed baseline of pre-industrial levels.
The forms of action that we need to take are clear.
The first is to reduce our carbon emissions immediately. That is, reducing individual emissions from travel (especially vehicles fuelled by fossil fuels), waste disposal, electricity, gas and coal use, and food production and distribution.
Another worthy action is to lobby government to either introduce a carbon tax, or strengthen the emissions trading scheme so that the country’s gross green house gas emissions(3) are reduced.
Doing these things will slow the rate of global warming but will not stop it dead.
So the second necessary action is to remove carbon from the atmosphere.
Planting trees is one way to achieve that outcome, and is the preferred net emissions reduction strategy of this government.
Another way is to sequester carbon where it can be locked away for a very long time.
That can be achieved by manufacturing biochar from waste organic materials like at municipal landfills (domestic waste), and forestry (tree waste), horticultural (crop waste) and animal (e.g. chicken) waste.
These are waste streams which, if they are not pyrolysed and buried, would decay quickly and add to our green house gas emissions.
Pyrolysis (derived from the Greek ‘pyro’ meaning fire and ‘lysis’ meaning separating) is a process of heating organic materials in the absence of oxygen. The process changes the chemical and physical structure of waste organic materials to produce charcoal.
Turning charcoal into biochar is a process of inoculating the char with beneficial bacteria and fungi.
A very efficient way of achieving that is to use it first as animal bedding in the dairy, equine or poultry industries. Or it can be used as a water filter in waste treatment systems, added to compost or soaked in a tea made from compost or worm farm castings.
Biochar is a soil amendment that realises significant benefits to the soil and thus the crops we grow. Biochar achieves this by replacing the need for fertilisers that require fossil fuels in their manufacture and distribution. When buried in the soil, it is an easy means to sequester carbon and so mitigate some of our green house gas emissions.
(2) In it’s 2014 Fifth Assessment Report (AR5), the IPCC argued, with high confidence, that “Without additional mitigation efforts beyond those in place today … warming by the end of the 21st century will lead to high to very high risk of severe, widespread and irreversible impacts globally.” The IPCC’s goal is to limit global warming to less than 2.0 °C but preferably to less than 1.5 °C by 2100. This lower limit equates to an atmospheric concentration level of 430 ppm CO2-equivalent.
How this relates to New Zealand is covered in a separate report by the NZ Climate Change Centre.
(3) Gross greenhouse gas emissions are defined as the total emissions from the four defined sectors of Agriculture, Energy, IPPU (Industrial Processes and Product Use) and Waste. Net emissions are the gross emissions plus or minus the emissions or removals from the LULUCF (Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry) sector. When forests are being planted, carbon is being sequestered which subtracts from the gross emissions to yield the net figure.